Aku menemukan beberapa pertanyaan yang nampaknya belum terjawab di forum ini

http://www.forumsains.com/artikel/daya-kerja-deterjen/

akan coba saya jawab teman – teman,

 

1 Re: Daya Kerja Deterjen oleh Syaputra Irwan pada Januari 02, 2009, 12:35:11

banyak ibu-ibu rumah tangga yang mengalami iritasi kulit dengan pemakaian deterjen merek baru, kanapa bisa demikian ya…?
sekarang ada produk yang bisa menghilangkan busa, itu bagaimana prinsip kerjanya..?
apa dampak (positif dan negatif) Alkyl Benzene Sulfonat (ABS) bagi lingkungan…?

Untuk jawaban dari pertanyaan yang ibu – ibu mengalami iritasi kulit, saya rasa itu belum dilakukan kajian ilmiah apakah benar itu terjadi, atau hanya beberapa orang tertentu yang kulitnya agak sensitif sehingga terjadi iritasi, karena zat aktif detergen ini jika terkena air akan panas (baca kenapa ini bisa terjadi disini, dan mungkin kulit ibu – ibu akan sensitif dengan panas tersebut.

Untuk pertanyaan kedua, yakni ada produk yang bisa menghilangkan busa, bagaimana prinsip kerjanya?

Prinsip kerjanya adalah sebagai berikut:

Surfaktan seperti ABS atau LAS yang merupakan salah satu komponen penting dari detergen  yang memiliki kemampuan membersihkan sekaligus membuat busa. meskipun pada deterjen – deterjen dipasaran busa yang banyak bukanlah 100 % di sebabkan oleh surfaktan ini, namun oleh senyawa tambahan yang disebut foam booster. Baik Surfaktan maupun Foam Booster akan mengendap apabila bereaksi dengan logam – logam seperti Ca, Fe, maupun Zn. Pengendapan ini terjadi akibat reaksi kimia dimana surfaktan maupun foam booster berikatan dengan salah satu logam tersebut.(Reaksi ini seperti FeCl jika ditambah dengan NaOH akan terjadi endapan). Akibatnya fungsi dari surfaktan dan foam booster yang semula aktif menjadi tidak aktif lagi.

Bagi orang kedokteran dan farmasi pasti masih ingat tentang adanya inhibitor kompetitif. Nah, seperti itulah gambarannya, surfaktan jika bertemu dengan kotoran akan membentuk emulsi dan berbusa. Namun logam – logam ini jauh lebih kuat ikatannya dengan surfaktan dibandingkan surfaktan dengan kotoran, sehingga jika surfaktan sudah bertemu dengan Ca, maka emulsi atau busa yang terjadi antara surfaktan dengan kotoran lepas, dan surfaktan berganti berikatan dengan Ca sehingga mengendap.   

  Kotoran                ———> emulsi (kotoran       terangkat)
imagesalah satu bagian struktur surfaktan    
  Ca+(muatan positif) ———> mengendap (in aktif)

    

             

gambar surfaktan yang berikatan dengan kotoran dan surfaktan yang berikatan dengan logam Calsium

 

makanya produk – produk tersebut sering sekali diberi optical brighter seperti tinopal agar endapan yang relatif kecil – kecil(berupa koloid) agak tidak terlihat dan kemudian dibuang. Coba saja amati air yang sudah  tercampur digunakan untuk membilas, pasti ada endapan yang melayang – layang membentuk suatu suspensi.

So jawabannya bahwa produk – produk tersebut mengandung banyak logam – logam plus pelembut  plus pewangi.

Hal ini juga bisa menjelaskan kenapa deterjen di air yang sadah tidak berbusa.

Untuk menghindari kerusakan surfaktan akibat adanya Ca dan logam – logam lainnya, maka dalam formula deterjen yang kami produksi , saya tambahkan sedikit zat phospate (karena ada batasan dalam Standar Nasional Indonesia tentang ekolabel ramah lingkungan deterjen sintetik dan kami mengikuti batasan tersebut). Zat phospate ini merupakan senyawa yang bermuatan negatif lebih kuat daripada surfaktan (surfaktan juga bermuatan negatif). Zat Phosphate ini ditambahkan agar apabila deterjen digunakan pada air sadah, mampu mengikat terlebih dahulu logam – logam Calsium, sehingga surfaktan dapat bekerja secara keseluruhan (tidak ada konsentrasi surfaktan yang berikatan dengan logam Ca) sehingga dapat mengangkat noda dengan baik.

Jika tadi logam Calsium adalah inhibitor kompetitifnya kotoran dimana mengganggu surfaktan untuk berikatan dengan kotoran, maka sekarang zat phosphate ini adalah inhibitor kuat (bukan kompetitif) dari calsium agar calsium tidak berikatan dengan surfaktan.

Yang jadi pertanyaan, Apakah zat phosphate ini juga berikatan dengan kotoran? jawabannya ya, zat phosphate ini juga berikatan dengan kotoran melalui ikatan ion sehingga surfaktan dapat lebih mudah mengangkat kotoran.

 

Meskipun demikian, perlu anda ingat bahwa busa bukanlah yang membersihkan kotoran, namun surfaktan dan zat zat lain yang diformulasikan secara cermat. Anggapan semakin banyak busa semakin bersih itu salah, dan jangan anda sampai termakan iklan. secara laboratorium, saya  banyak menemukan produk detergen yang diproduksi produsen – produsen di Indonesia ini hanya menjual foam boosting saja, sehingga busa berlimpah, tetapi daya bersihnya nol. Namun saya mengakui ada satu detergen yang lumayan berkualitas dibanding detergen yang di gembor – gemborkan di TV. meskipun demikian apabila dibandingkan dengan formula kami, masih kalah jauh (ya iyalah, namanya juga promosi, heheehe). Tapi memang kok secara uji lab kita masih menang. Akan saya ulas dikemudian hari.

 

Daftar Pustaka

Handbook of detergen, lupa pengarangnya siapa.

 

Salam

Andy Eko Wibowo

Kepala laboratorium & Gudang PT.Indah Semesta Raya Detergen

Produsen Detergen oxydatif pertama di Indonesia. Bersih, ekonomis, dan ramah lingkungan.

Butuh Detergen ber BPOM dan DEPKES, kamilah produsennya

Harga bisa menentukan kantong dompet anda dengan kualitas optimal

Mitra kami adalah agent – agent loundry besar yang tersebar di penjuru Indonesia

Melayani konsultasi detergen dan segala permasalahan loundry.

Moto saya,

Jika belum tahu ilmiahnya, jangan lah mudah percaya.

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