Kenapa detergen akan terasa panas ketika di masukan ke dalam air?

 

Do you know Natrium Hidroksida?

Untuk orang – orang kimia tentunya NaOH (Natrium hidroksida) sangatlah familier. Bentuknya butiran putih yang apabila di masukkan air maka air akan memanas.

 

ne gambar Natrium Hidroksida:image

Nah, jawabannya mirip seperti itu, meskipun senyawa yang membuat panas bukanlah NaOH tersebut.

Lantas apa?

Ya inti dari deterjen itu! apa inti deterjen? Namanya surfaktan. Mengenai mekanisme pembersihan deterjen akan saya ulas dalam judul tersendiri.

seSurfaktan yang sering digunakan adalah ABS (Alkhil benzen sulphonate). Namun, di amerika dan eropa surfaktan ini sudah dilarang oleh FDA karena sulit untuk di urai mikroba lingkungan. Di Indonesia? santai saja, untuk deterjen – deterjen yang memiliki izin dari BPOM dan DEPKES juga sudah tidak digunakan lagi. Tapi hati – hati bagi pengguna detergen di bisnis loundri, karena masih banyak produsen – produsen deterjen yang menggunakan ABS untuk bahan surfaktan (biasa, alasan murah).

Penggantinya ABS adalah Linier Alkil sulphate (L.A.S). Banyak Jenis dari LAS ini dengan nama dagang yang berbeda – beda, seperti emall, Neopelex dll.

struktur LAS adalah sebagai berikut :

image                  struktur L.A.S. (dimana ada bagian ekor dan bagian kepala) image Bagian kepala mempunyai tanda negatif yang berarti muatan negatif. Muatan negatif inilah nantinya yang ditempeli oleh Natrium dimana Natrium bermuatan positif. sehingga sering juga kita sebut Las menjadi Las-Na

 

Sebenarnya banyak sekali senyawa yang apabila dilarutkan dalam air menghasilkan panas. Saya membandingkan NaOH dengan Las-Na karena NaOH adalah senyawa yang sering di jumpai.

Pertanyaan yang harus kita jawab adalah Kenapa baik NaOH dan Las-Na jika dilarutkan dalam air menghasilkan panas?

Saat Las-Na maupun NaOH di masukkan ke air maka yang terjadi adalah bentuk Las-Na maupun NaOH akan terdisolusi KE bentuk ionnya

Las-Na ————> Las-(bermuatan negatif)  + Na+(bermuatan positif)

 

Ternyata pada saat terjadi disolusi tersebut juga akan terbentuk senyawa hidrate dari ion lAS dan molekul air, dimana hidrate ini  spread to the liquid.

jadi secara bersamaan akan terjadi dua proses

1. ion/molekul LAS-Na  berdifusi ke air (water difusiion proses). Proses ini membutuhkan penyerapan panas dari lingkungan atau disebut reaksi  endotermik. ciri dari reaksi ini adalah sistem yang kita pegang akan terasa dingin. (ex—es untuk mencair membutuhkan panas, saat kita menyentuh es, maka panas kita akan terserap ke dalam sistem).

2. ion/molekul Las-Na atau NaOH dan molekul air akan membentuk sebuah molekul atau proses dari pembentukan senyawa hidrate dalam bentuk ion. Proses ini ternyata bersifat melepaskan kalor ke sistem atau reaksi eksotermik(exothermic).

Nah kunci permasalahan yang harus kita jawab ada disini.

ternyata jika dibandingkan dua energi yang terjadi antara reaksi 1 dan reaksi 2, penyerapan panas dari sistem lebih kecil daripada pelepasan panas sehingga yang terasa hanyalah rasa panas dari reaksi tersebut.

 

jadi, kalo ada iklan di TV, Koran, ataupun media cetak lain kok menyatakan bahwa detergen tidak panas di tangan, patut dicurigai bahwa detergen itu kualitasnya rendah atau hanya berjualan busa saja, padahal jika anda tahu, yang menentukan kualitas detergen dalam mengangkat noda kotoran bukan busanya, namun salah satu komponen pentingnya ya surfaktan ini.

 

salam

Andy Eko Wibowo

Kepala Laboratorium PT.Indah Semesta Raya

Detergen OXydafit pertama di Indonesia, bersih , ekonomis,& ramah lingkungan

Cocok untuk mesin cuci dan bisnis loundry anda

Telah memiliki surat BPOM dan DEPKES

Selogan saya,

Ilmiahkan semuanya agar anda tak tertipu.

Harga,

ditentukan oleh kantong anda, bisa dengan merk anda.

Pemesanan seluruh Indonesia di layani

 

 

Daftar pustaka

Handbook of Detergents, Part E: Applications

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16,637 Comments on Kenapa Deterjen panas saat di masukkan dalam air?(Why will detergent heat in water)

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