Bleaches/zat pemutih adalah salah satu komponen penting dalam deterjen.

Kali ini, andy akan menjelaskan tentang mekanisme senyawa pemutih pakaian memutihkan pakaian. Bagaimana cara senyawa itu bisa memutihkan pakaian?

Bleach adalah suatu senyawa yang dapat memutihkan pakaian melalui dua proses, dimana proses pertama adalah meningkatkan efektifitas kerja surfaktan dengan memperkecil ukuran molekul kotoran dengan mengoksidasinya. Sedangkan proses kedua adalah mengubah warna kotoran menjadi putih sehingga tidak tampak /terlihat oleh mata. Warna putih yang dimaksud adalah putih udara, jernih air, bukan putih susu.

saya ulang ya:

Kerja pemutih ini adalah reaksi kimia dimana molekul kotoran akan di pecah – pecah menjadi  bagian yang lebih kecil sehingga lebih mudah untuk di angkat oleh surfaktan (tetap peran surfaktan adalah yang mengangkat noda). Selain itu, secara bersamaan juga  membuat kotoran atau noda menjadi invisible(ora ketok nang mripat bong!!!).

Ini proses pemutih memperkecil molekul kotoran (anonim, 2010):

image

gambar 1. kondisi kotoran yang ada dalam kain. Melekat dalam kain dalam bentuk bulatan, karena merupakan molekul hidrofobik (tidak suka air)

 image

gambar 2. Pemutih akan bereaksi dengan kotoran dimana hasil reaksi ini akan memutuskan ikatan kimia pada kotoran.

image

gambar 3. Akibatnya kotoran menjadi kecil – kecil terpisah pisah.

Ada pertanyaan

kok kotoran yang kecil – kecil itu g kembali bergabung dengan teman – temannya menjadi molekul besar lagi? kan kotoran itu hidrofobik(takut air), maka kotoran akan berkumpul dengan molekul hidrofobik yakni kotoran tetangganya lagi to?. Bayangkan apabila ada minyak tanah dalam air, meskipun kita aduk kuat – kuat, maka apabila jaraknya masih memungkinkan sesama bulatan minyak tanah akan bergabung lagi menjadi bulatan besar?iya to???hayo piye jawabnya??

Nah…jawabannya ini, temen – temen harus juga ingat klo di dalam sistem tersebut juga ada surfaktan yang langsung menyelubungi kotoran kecil – kecil. Surfaktan ini mempunyai dua kemampuan berkebalikan, yakni kemampuan mengikat kotoran tetapi juga mengikat air (sifat liphofilik -hidrofilik=ada bagian dari senyawa yang suka dengan air dan ada yang benci dengan air tapi suka dengan senyawa lipid, seperti kotoran)

 

Oke …lanjut,

gambar dibawah ini, yang sebelah kiri merupakan proses bagaimana pemutih membuat kotoran tidak nampak di mata atau invisible (Anonim, 2010) sedangkan sebelah kanan merupakan penjelasantentang proses bagaimana kotoran tidak nampak di mata  melalui ilmu kimia organik yakni mekanisme reaksi ( andy, 2010):

image   image

 

gambar 1. Semua Senyawa yang berwarna (kecuali ikatan kompleks) memiliki gugus kromophor atau ikatan rangkap terkonjugasi. Begitu pula kotoran, ternyata memiliki ikatanrangkap terkonjugasi (yang dibulat hijau). Molekul pemutih (kita misalkan HX) merupakan senyawa nukleofil atau senyawa yang kaya elektron. Bisa di bayangkan senyawa ini adalah orang kaya yang dermawan, dimana sering sekali memberikan bantuan kepada orang yang membutuhkan. senyawa nukleofil ini akan menyerang kotoran tepat dibagian ikatan rangkap dimana merupakan titik yang miskin elektron atau sering disebut elektrofil.  Anggap elektrofil merupakan orang yang miskin dimana apabila diberi elektron oleh orang kaya akan berubah menjadi stabil)

 

mekanisme yang lebih rinci adalah sebagai berikut:

image

gambar 2. Pada saat kotoran beresonansi (istilah perpindahan ikatan rangkap dalam kimia organik), maka ujung rantai ikatan rangkap akan bermuatan positif sehingga bersifat sangat kekurangan elektron(elektrofil). Pada saat inilah molekul pemutih akan menyerang kotoran.

image  image

image image

Senyawa pemutih akan merusak semua ikatan rangkap yang dimiliki oleh kotoran, sampai tidak memiliki ikatan rangkap terkonjugasi.

dengan terputusnya ikatan ini maka senyawa kotoran menjadi dalam bentuk linier (tidak berikatan rangkap) warna yang terbentuk akibat pola terkonjugasi pun berubah menjadi warna putih bening (maksudnya putih seperti air, seperti udara), bukan putih kain mori yang bercahaya (Jika dalam detergen bisa menyebabkan seperti bercahaya,itu disebabkan oleh suatu senyawa yang disebut optical brightness). Disini lah ada penjelasan mengenai mengapa pemutih yang kuat akan melunturkan warna pakaian menjadi putih kain mori, yakni karena ikatan yang terkonjugasi pada warna pakaian juga akan ikut dirusak oleh senyawa pemutih. namun tenang saja , pada deterjen yang kami formulasikan, kami sudah meninggalkan sistem pemutihan menggunakan senyawa pemutih yang kuat ini, karena selain tidak selektif terhadap kotoran, punya banyak kerugian seperti tidak ramah lingkungan, korosif (tidak cocok untuk mesin cuci). Meskipun demikian, senyawa yang kami formulasikan dalam deterjen, jika hanya senyawa pemutih sendiri memang korosif, namun kami menambahkan senyawa silika yang dapat menghilangkan sifat korosifitas dari senyawa pemutih. Adapun pembahasannya, akan saya ungkap di lain waktu.

 

 

Daftar Pustaka

Andy, 2010. Program chemdraw. dan ilmu kimia organik.

Anonim, 2010, Bleach system, Why use bleach in cleaning products?, science in the box, diakses di alamat http://www.scienceinthebox.com/en_UK/glossary/bleaches_en.html pada tanggal 12 Desember 2010

 

salam

Andy Eko Wibowo

Kepala Laboratorium PT.Indah Semesta Raya

Detergen OXydafit pertama di Indonesia, bersih , ekonomis,& ramah lingkungan

Cocok untuk mesin cuci dan bisnis loundry anda

Telah memiliki surat BPOM dan DEPKES

Selogan saya,

Ilmiahkan semuanya agar anda tak tertipu.

Harga,

ditentukan oleh kantong anda, bisa dengan merk anda.

Pemesanan seluruh Indonesia di layani

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